17th of May

The 17th of May! Also known as Constitution Day, or in norsk syttende mai. The 17th of May is the Norwegian equivalent of America’s 4th of July, and although both holidays definitely have some overlap in the ways they are celebrated, there are also some notable differences.

One of the first things that I noticed right off the bat is that the 17th of May is a formal holiday. In America, our national day is celebrated in things like shorts and bro tanks, while in Norway, many Norwegians get dressed up in their bunads, or traditional Norwegian clothing. In Norway, a bunad is considered the most formal piece of clothing that you own–even more formal than black tie–and they are usually only worn for the 17th of May and for special events, such as weddings. The clothing itself is spectacular. Yards of intricately stitched wool is worn (which my co-teachers have told me is warm but incredibly heavy). I noticed that it was mainly the women and children who wore their bunads, while the men tended to prefer suits. Unfortunately, it was difficult for me to get any really good pictures of the bunads without seeming creepy, but you will still be able to get a sense of what they look like in the pictures. You might also notice that there are different types of bunads. This is because each region in Norway has its own traditional bunad pattern and design, with some being considered more desirable than others. I have to admit that I thought the bunads were marvelous, and I even half entertained getting one, at least I did until I casually asked one of my co-teachers about the cost. I was floored. For an authentic bunad, one that is done by hand and follows a particular set of traditional guidelines, the cost is around 20,000 NOK (2566.54 USD). Because of the exorbitant cost, it’s rare for people to buy the authentic versions. Children are usually given them (since they are smaller and less expensive) and young adults are usually given one at their confirmation (in their late teens). Because it’s not uncommon for adults to grow out of their bunads, it’s not unheard of to get a new one, although most people will then buy a cheaper and less authentic version.

Additionally, I would also say that the Norwegian national day is much more community and family oriented. Many people go to the day’s parades with their family or local groups, and because things are so community oriented, the festivities seem to be much calmer than they are in the United States.

However, one big similarity to the 4th of July is the parades. Parades are clearly the highlight of the day, although there were also a number of memorials, services, and performances going on throughout the day. The parades in Trondheim broke down into three different groups:

  1. Barnetoget – The children’s parade. Barnetoget is when children march with their schools into the city center. Many of the kids are dressed up in their bunads and walk into town singing.
  2. Folketoget – The citizen’s parade. Where different community groups band together and march in a parade. My TEDx Trondheim team was there, but so were a number of other groups, such as marching bands, dance groups, and a number of the university’s student organizations.
  3. Russetoget – The russ parade. When all of the drunk russ students march to the beat of their own loud stereo systems.

Because May 17th fell on a Sunday, a visiting friend, Olivia, and I decided to sleep in, thus missing barnetoget. We did however manage to make it to the city center with plenty of time to spare for folketoget. I even brought a small Norwegian flag with me. This didn’t fool many people though. I think the big indicator that Olivia and I were American was the way we answered the cheer, “hip hip.” The two of us would respond with “hurray,” while the Norwegians would shout “hurrah.” Oh, well.

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Folketoget was definitely an interesting parade to watch. There were so many different community groups that I didn’t even know existed in Trondheim. My favorite marchers were the ones in the photo above who marched on what I can only describe as a set of group cross country skis.

Afterwards, Olivia and I decided to have lunch in town before looking for the russ parade. We didn’t have to walk far before we found them–though I suppose we technically heard them before we saw them. The russ has gathered in a parking lot towards the beginning of the parade route and seemed to be having a blast. It was neat to see how even though all of these kids were collectively celebrating russ, each school was doing so in its own unique way. I was particularly impressed with the bunch that managed to all have Hello Kitty balloons.

Luckily, we didn’t have to wait long before the russ began their parade–and my students were actually the ones leading the charge! Their collective enthusiasm was both infectious and hilarious to watch. The students ran around and had plenty of parade floats, flags, confetti cannons, and of course, russ cards. I had shown Olivia my collection of russ cards, but my collection paled in comparison to the ones the children had. The average collection had to be about three inches thick, and many children simply shoved their collections into large plastic bags because they were simply too big to hold in one hand. Watching the children follow the russ go by was also interesting. It was clear that the kids idolize the russ students and look forward to one day being old enough to participate.

Now that the 17th of May, and thus russ, has come and gone, I even admit that I sometimes miss seeing the russ around with their bright red overalls and hearing advertisements for Russ playlists on Spotify. Still, it’s also nice to have everything settle down and returned back to normal. If you’re interested in hearing a different 17th of May perspective, definitely check out this post done by my friend and fellow Fulbrighter, Lud Baldwin.

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Testing and an Open Internet

Norway does not have the same test taking culture that we have in the United States. Going through the US education system I remember being regularly tested. Up through middle school, I remember taking at least one form of standardized test each year, and in high school I took the SAT in addition to several AP tests each year. On top of that, you also have your standard classroom tests.

In Norway, things are very different. Students are not assessed as regularly or as often as students in the United States. Homework is rarely assigned or handed in, and major assignments and tests are few and far between. The one glaring exception to this is the end of year mock exams and national exams.

Mock exams are designed to emulate the national exams and thus help students prepare for their exams. The name is a bit deceiving however because these exams still count towards a student’s grade. They are effectively final exams. Students have mock exams in all of their classes, but they will not have a national exam in all of their classes. When students first begin upper secondary school they are unlikely to take national exams, but as they continue to move up the education ladder they are tested more and more. Here’s how things break down for the college prep track:

  • First year in upper secondary school (Vg1) – Maybe 1 exam. Approximately 20% of students will be given an exam.
  • Second year in upper secondary school (Vg2) – 1 exam (Two thirds of students will take a written exam and the remaining students will take an oral exam)
  • Third year in upper secondary school (Vg3) – 4 exams (3 written and 1 oral) are necessary in order to graduate. It is required that one of the written exams is in Norwegian.

Rarely is a student given both a written and an oral exam in the same subject. Students aren’t told what subjects they’ll be tested on until a few weeks before their national exams.

Although students should be prepared to take an exam in any subject, I’ve been told that things hardly appear to be completely random. For example, it is rare for those in the sciences to ever be tested in the humanities. In essence, students are tested in their strengths. While there is some value to that, one of the downsides is that it’s easy for students to dismiss subjects that they don’t think that they will be tested in. For example, it is not uncommon for mechanics students to be blasé in their English classes, secure in the knowledge that they probably won’t be tested in the subject at a national level.

I’ve been told that national exams are good for schools because they give the school a good idea of how well the students and teachers are doing. As for the students, I’ve been told that although the national exams do not factor into their grades, their scores are looked at during the university admissions process and might even hold more weight than a student’s transcript.

One interesting development that has taken place in the last few years is the introduction of the Internet to the national exams. My school is participating in a pilot program that has the students to take their exams online and allows them open access to the Internet. Although this is technically a pilot program, everyone I’ve talked to agrees that the pilot program is not to determine whether or not students should have access to the Internet, rather it is to work out any kinks before rolling the system out across the entire country. So far there are no restrictions as to what websites students can access during the exams, meaning that in theory the students could spend their entire time on Facebook instead of on the exam. Maybe it’s just my suspicious American mind, but it seems to me that this leaves a very clear opportunity for students to plagiarize, cheat, and collaborate during an exam. The Norwegians on the other hand seem fairly unconcerned with this possibility. I suppose that’s what happens when you live in a largely law abiding society.

Beyond the possibility for cheating, I generally think open access to the Internet is a bad idea. First, from the teaching perspective, it makes it very difficult to know what to actually teach your kids. Because the Internet gives students access to so much information, the scope of the exam increases, making it more difficult to try and guess what will be on the exam. This forces teachers to focus more on breadth instead of depth, making them feel as though they have to cover more material in the same amount of time.

Second, I think that it makes it more difficult to encourage critical thinking. Because students are covering so much information in such a short span of time, it means that students don’t have as much time to really engage with texts. I think that the biggest thing education can offer students is how to think on their own. Because teachers aren’t able to cover topics in depth, this can prevent students from learning the nuances of a topic and allowing them to create their own informed opinions. It’s much easier to read an opinion piece on the Internet and regurgitate it on a test than it is to critically engage with the facts and come up with your own answers.

But so far it seems like only me and a few of my co-teachers have that opinion. I suppose we’ll just have to see what happens and hope for the best.

Russ Updates

Today was the last day I had this week with my russ students, so I thought I would go ahead and update you on what I’ve learned.

  • First things first, I was wrong about russ hats. They are not given out on the 17th of May, the students actually have them for the entire duration of russ (I have gone ahead and updated my previous post).
  • Every dare that you undertake to earn russeknuter, or knots in your cap, must be documented or witnessed. I pressed my students on this, asking if this still applies to sexual dares. The answer: yes. To my surprise, they seemed to be confused as to why I found this strange.
  • Students decorate their russ overalls. Most of them will have their names and schools stitched on to them, but some also add things like patches that say “Don’t arrest me.” People also write on their overalls (much like you would write on someone’s cast). My favorite thing that I’ve seen so far was someone who wrote down their phone number but misspelled their name (the ‘a’ was written on backwards. Sadly it wasn’t intentional.) Some students also wear white lab coats that they decorate. I was told that the lab coats were part of an older russ uniform, but not too many students still use them today.
  • Baring absolute disaster (namely someone vomiting on you), my russ students really don’t wash their russ overalls until russ is over. Some of my students have decided to be a bit strategic about this, saving more messy dares (like crawling around the downtown area) for the end of russ.
  • Although russ hasn’t even gone on for a week, many of my students have already lost their voices or are sick–unsurprising considering most of them are partying every night.
  • And I’ve saved the best for last, russekort, or russ cards! I have been acting like Norwegian children everywhere and been collecting russ cards! Out of curiosity, I asked my students how many cards each of them have printed, and the answer is 600 each! I was blown away. When I asked if they actually expected to get rid of all of them, all of my students nodded emphatically. Many of them said that they can’t even get through Sentrum (city central) without having to give away 30 or 40 cards to children. I asked my students how long kids collect russ cards for and was told that it is socially acceptable until you’re about 12 or 13. My students have the good sense not to point out that I am not 13 or under, and instead seem to think it’s hilarious how excited I am to see their russ cards. Because a few of my friends were asking, I thought I’d show you my growing collection of russ cards, though for privacy reasons I’ve blocked out the pictures and personal information. I’ve also gone ahead and had some of the phrases translated for you.
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What can be done today can be done tomorrow

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7025 Upper West Side – Fill my glass to the top, thanks!

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When alcohol enters, my wits leave and make room for more alcohol. Cheers!

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vodka you so fine

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Address: Here and there – Tlf: Yes thanks – I’m old enough to know better but I’m young enough to do it anyway – I’m Captain, Captain Jack Sparrow

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Address: 12 Grimmauld place – Sometimes we must choose between what’s right and what’s easy – Albus Dumbledore

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Member of Clean Teens – I have been in doubt my whole life, but now I’m not sure anymore

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Vamos beber! (We’re going to drink!) – Member of: Los bromigos

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Stop global warming, I need ice for my martini


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Address: 120 Conch Street, Bikini Bottom, the Pacific – My grandmother started walking five miles a day when she was sixty. She’s ninety-seven now, and we don’t know where the hell she is. – Ellen DeGeneres

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Address: Second star to the right and straight on – chocolate doesn’t ask silly questions chocolate understands – Who tells you to drink responsibly and why would I drink with him?

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Address: Upper West Side – Tlf: Give me yours, and I’ll give you mine – It’s true. I’m kind of retarded. But I’m also kind of amazing MUTHAFUCKAA

Norwegian Food

Tis the season of friends! As summer draws near and my Fulbright draws to a close, I’ve had more and more friends decide to come visit. At last count, I’m seeing six groups of friends over seven different weekends, so I’ve been trying to catch up on my blog during the week. So far I’ve seen two groups of friends, and it’s been fun talking about Norway and getting a chance to act as a cultural ambassador. Yay for fulfilling Fulbright goals!

Anyways, one recurring question that I’ve been asked is “What is Norwegian food like?” To be frank, I (as well as most people in Norway) rarely dine out, so my familiarity with traditional Norwegian fare is a bit sparse. That being said, I will do my best to tell you what I know.


One thing to remember about Norway is that it was poor for much of its history.* Because of this, it was necessary for many Norwegians to carefully preserve what food was available. This means that many traditional dishes are things that have been dried and salted. Pinnekjøtt is a traditional Christmas dish composed of salted and dried lamb’s ribs. The ribs are then steamed and served with potatoes and sausages.


Norwegian Salmon

Norwegian salmon is world famous for good reason. The fish here is absolutely delicious, and is one of the few things you will find at a reasonable price. Norway is one of the world’s biggest fish exporters, and the cold water apparently helps the fish grow more slowly, helping add flavor and structure to the meat.


Cod (Liver Oil), Tørrfisk, and Lutefisk

Cod is another very popular Norwegian fish. It’s particularly well known around the Lofoten Islands and thousands of cod are still caught and dried in that area.

Tørrfisk, or stock fish, is any sort of salted and dried fish, but it is generally made from cod.

Lutefisk, pictured below, takes tørrfisk a step further since it is tørrfisk in water and lye. Don’t worry though, lutefisk is generally cooked or grilled before being eaten.**

Last but not least, cod liver oil is part of the Norwegian way of life. This general cure all can be found in pretty much every grocery store and Norwegian home.



A porridge made of sour cream with cinnamon, sugar, and butter added in.

A popular Christmas variation is risengrøt, or rice porridge. Grøt, or porridge, is important around Christmas time because it is left out for the nisse, a type of Christmas elf. Feeding the nisse is supposed to provide farmers with good harvests, and risengrøt is eaten on Christmas Eve. An almond is supposed to be hidden in the mixture, and whoever finds it in their porridge wins a marzipan pig.



Beef meatballs that are a typical Norwegian dinner. They are usually served with potatoes, peas, gravy, and lingonberry sauce.


Pølse i lompe

The Norwegian version of a hot dog. It is a very long and skinny hot dog wrapped in a tortilla.



No description of Norwegian food would be complete without brunost, or brown cheese. It is a combination of milk, cream, and whey that is boiled until it caramelizes, giving the cheese a brown color and slightly sweet flavor. People tend to either love or hate it, but it is definitely something worth giving a try. Personally, my favorite way of eating it is to have it with waffles and jam.



Knekkebrød is another Norwegian favorite. I’m even told that Norwegians traveling abroad will take knekkebrød and brown cheese with them, since they know they won’t be able find them outside of the country. Knekkebrød, or crispbread, is a type of very light and dry cracker. It often comes loaded with a bunch of grains and seeds.


Another important thing to know is that Norwegians have their meals on a very different timeline. In America, it’s common to have three meals a day:

  • Breakfast at around 7 or 8 am
  • Lunch at around 12 or 1 pm
  • Dinner around 6 or 7 pm

Norwegians prefer to have four meals a day:

  • Frokost/breakfast at around 7 am
  • Lunsj/lunch at around 11 am
  • Middag/first dinner at around 4 or 5 pm
  • Kveldsmat/second dinner at around 9 pm

To this day, I still find it strange to stop for lunch at 11 am.

That’s pretty much all that I can offer on Norwegian cuisine. My only other piece of advice is that if you happen to stay in a Norwegian hotel, I would definitely take advantage of the breakfast buffet, universally some of the best breakfasts that I’ve ever encountered. Happy eating and bon appétit!

*The dramatically simplified version of Norway’s history is: Things went downhill after the Vikings until Norway found oil in the late 1960’s.

**Funnily enough Heather, the Roving Scholar from Minnesota, was visiting one of my classes and asked them if there were any special foods she should try while she was in Norway. One of my students jokingly told her to give lutefisk a try, and, to everyone’s surprise, Heather told the class that she had already tried lutefisk. According to Heather, the large Norwegian-American community in Minnesota is pretty devoted to making traditional Norwegian food. She went on to say that people even have “I Love Lutefisk” t-shirts. Ironically enough, neither Heather nor I has met a single Norwegian who actually likes lutefisk.

Introverts and the Norwegian Classroom

Not too long ago a friend of mine recommended that I read a book by Susan Cain called Quiet: The Power of Introverts in a World That Can’t Stop Talking. As someone who has generally considered myself somewhere in the middle of the introvert/extrovert spectrum, or an ambivert, I figured I’d give it a read and see what I thought.

The book is written much like an academic thesis, filled with facts, studies, and scholars, yet it is also clearly written to be understandable by the layperson. At times I think this means that the book sacrifices academia for readability, but overall I enjoyed it. In fact, to my surprise, according to Cain’s definition, I’m much more introverted than I thought. You can take a quiz adapted from the book here, but signs that you might be an introvert include:

  • You prefer one-on-one conversations to groups
  • You prefer to express yourself in writing, as opposed to say face-to-face
  • You are happy being alone or independent
  • You are often told you are a good listener
  • You’re generally not a risk taker

And the list goes on. Much of Cain’s book deals with how to appreciate being an introvert in the United States, a society that largely celebrates extroverts. Her book also looks at ways of celebrating introversion instead of critiquing it, and how to maximize your strengths as an introvert. While the book is mostly geared towards introverts, it does provide information on extroverts, and even spends time discussing how the two can best work together. But what particularly struck me about Cain’s book was its implications for education.

So, I thought we’d make a pitstop at the Norwegian education system. Now Norway is notorious for having low levels of in class participation, and I feel confident saying this having discussed this with a number of Norwegians teachers and the Roving Scholars. Students simply don’t want to participate or volunteer. Even getting students to answer straightforward or obvious questions is a struggle. It’s also not uncommon for students to ask to give a presentation in front of just the teacher, instead of in front of the whole class.

Several of my co-teachers said this lack of participation could be traced back to Junteloven, a feature of Scandinavian culture that can be summed up by saying “You shouldn’t think you’re better than anyone else.” According to Wikipedia, Junteloven breaks down into the following ten laws:

  1. You’re not to think you are anything special.
  2. You’re not to think you are as good as anyone.
  3. You’re not to think you are smarter than anyone.
  4. You’re not to convince yourself that you are better than anyone.
  5. You’re not to think you know more than anyone.
  6. You’re not to think you are more important than anyone.
  7. You’re not to think you are good at anything.
  8. You’re not to laugh at anyone.
  9. You’re not to think anyone cares about anyone.
  10. You’re not to think you can teach anyone anything.

If that doesn’t crush the idea of the individual, I don’t know what does.

The idea behind all of this is to preserve harmony within a community. In short, if everyone is equal, nobody stands out or can rock the boat.

If you apply those ten rules to the classroom, it becomes easy to see why a student might not want to raise their hand, or appear to think that they know best in front of their classmates. Luckily, my co-teachers have said that Juteloven hasn’t been emphasized as much with younger generations. This might be why children are starting to participate a bit more in class, though nobody would say that class participation is high by any means.

Now all of this brings me back to Susan Cain. Before this book, I had never thought to think of my students as being introverted, and while I’m not saying that a lack of student participation can be traced to introversion, I suspect that introversion does play a significant role in Norwegian classrooms. Luckily, a significant part of Cain’s book looks at how to interact with introverted children, and it specifically touches on teaching techniques. Here are the ones that I thought were most useful, most of them direct from the book:

  • Don’t think of introversion as something that needs to be cured. If help is needed with social skills, teach them or recommend training outside class (similar to if a student needs help with any other skill, such as reading or math).
  • One third to one half of people are introverts. Extroverts like movement, stimulation, and collaborative work, while introverts prefer lectures, downtime, and independent projects. Mix it up fairly.
  • Some collaborative work is fine for introverts, even beneficial. But it should take place in small groups–pairs or threesomes–and be carefully structured so that each child knows his or her role.

Using the points above, here is how I plan on using some of Cain’s suggestions in the classroom:

  • Remembering that it’s okay for my students to be introverted. I think it’s useful to remember that extroverted behavior should not necessarily be the pinnacle of the education model.
  • Mixing up different types of work. I often lecture my students and then follow up with an activity. So far I’ve noticed that they really like games (what student doesn’t?) but I’ve also had them collaborate in large groups. I’m now planning on having them do a few more independent projects.
  • When assigning group work having that work be structured so that each student has a specific role.

I obviously don’t know how successful this will be, or even if my guess about introversion in Norwegian classrooms is correct; however, there is nothing to lose and potentially much to gain. So here’s to trying new things.


Russ is here! It’s the time of year, when to quote Buzzfeed, “Norwegian teenagers lose their fucking minds, wreak havoc across the country and EVERYONE IS TOTALLY FINE WITH IT.” If you want a colorful overview of russ definitely check out this Buzzfeed article, otherwise I’m going to go ahead and explain it, but without all of the GIFs and Instagram pictures.

Now because russ is not well documented in English, most of my knowledge comes from my co-teachers, English language blogs, and Wikipedia, so apologies if any of this is incorrect.

When is russ?

Russefeiring, more commonly known as russ, is a tradition that started in 1905. Students who are in their last year of upper secondary school participate in what is essentially a month long graduation celebration. The start date for this celebration seems to depend on where you’re located and the school that you attend, but I’ve been told that it can start as early as the end of Easter break (around April 6). For my students, they have decided to start on the official russ day, May 1. But regardless of what day russ starts, it always ends May 17, Constitution Day, the Norwegian national day.

To make matters more interesting, students have their national exams in the weeks right after russ ends. Now you might wonder why on earth you would ever have russ before your national exams instead of after them. According to one of my co-teachers, things used to be organized this way, but the timeline was changed in the hopes that it would make things less crazy. From what I’ve heard, I don’t think that this has been a successful strategy and there is talk of moving russ to after the national exams.

How can you tell if someone is participating in russ?

Students are traditionally supposed to wear special russ overalls, or russebukse, which cost around 599 NOK (78 USD). The color of your russebukse depends on what you are studying:

  • Red for higher education (the most common color)
  • Blue for business (also higher education in economics and management)
  • White for medical and social studies
  • Black for engineering (such as mechanics or electrics)
  • Green for agriculture

and these overalls are worn for the entire duration of russ (at least two weeks straight).

There are also russ hats, russelue, that are given to each student. The idea behind them is similar to the idea of a graduation cap, they are a symbol of completion. The hats also have a nickname written on their brim which is suppose to characterize either the student’s normal behavior or their russ behavior.

What happens during russ?

Now you’re probably wondering what these students actually do during russ. Well one element of russ comprises of students trying to earn russ knots for their caps, or russeknuter. These pranks usually have to be witnessed by either members of the Russeboard, or videotaped (Yes, there is a governing student body to this month long celebration). When a prank or dare has been verified, the student earns a knot in their cap. Out of curiosity, I went on this year’s russ website (Yes, there is even a website) and looked at a few of this year’s challenges. According to Google Translate, some choice dares are:

  • Buy a pack of condoms using only body language
  • Go through a whole lesson wearing only underwear
  • Pretend you are an animal for an entire school day
  • Act as a tour guide on public transportation for at least five stops
  • Drink a bottle of wine in 20 minutes, minimum 75cl.
  • Go through an entire school day with your arms and legs tied or taped to another russ
  • Have safe sex with a statue
  • Have sex with two people with the same first name on the same evening.

To my relief, there is a range in how risqué the dares are. Here are a few of the nicer ones:

  • Visit a retirement home and make the residents’ day brighter
  • Give a hug to a police officer. Remember to ask nicely
  • Take a picture with the Russeboard and post on Instagram
  • Be at school every day during school (for smart individuals)

Additionally, many students participate in different parties and even fundraise for these parties. My students put on a play that I was invited to (they assured me that it would be PG-13), but I was unable to attend. The ticket proceeds went to an afterparty.

If you take a look at the Buzzfeed article above, you’ll even see that some students manage to buy buses that they transform into russ party buses. They essentially drive around the country going to different parties, or simply set up shop in a parking lot and drink there. When I asked my students if they had a bus their response was “…No. That’s for the rich kids in Oslo. Why would you even want to party in a parking lot?” Clearly there are some regional russ differences.

Reactions to russ

In short, russ involves a lot of drinking, partying, and (unprotected) sex. My students had to go to an assembly where they talked to a police officer and the school nurse. When I asked them what they learned, they said they learned about safe sex (this was paired with an eye roll), “how to not get raped,” and where to get tested for STDs. When I asked if they learned about safe drinking, their answer was confused silence. After waiting for about a minute, someone ventured to say, “They told us to drink water?” I tried very hard not to cringe this entire time.

I’ve had a number of people ask me what Norwegians generally think about this tradition, and the answer is that many of them don’t mind it. Many older people look back fondly on this time, while younger kids think that it is something to look forward to. One thing that gets children really excited about russ is russ business cards, a fake business card that each students makes. The typical card has a silly picture paired with an inappropriate phrase, and children go around and try and collect as many of these russ cards as they can. This is also why one of this year’s russ challenges is to run through an elementary school during recess without giving away a single card.

As for me, as a teaching assistant I’m in an ideal spot to watch all of this. I’m not responsible for how well students do on their national exams, nor am I really in a position to discipline any of my students. I’m interested to see how the next few weeks play out, and rest assured I will report if I notice anything russ related happening in class.